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Consequently, Henry VIII and his successors endeavored to force the Irish to submit through military incursions and by "planting" large areas of Ireland with settlers loyal to England.
A forceful resistance to the English reconquest of Ireland was led by the Northern chieftain Hugh O'Neill at the end of the sixteenth century.
The Catholic Emancipation Act followed in 1829 chiefly due to the activities of the Irish politician Daniel O'Connell.
During the 1830s and 1840s a new nationalist movement, Young Ireland, arose.
An important legacy of the Viking invasion was the establishment of such cities as Dublin, Cork, Waterford, Limerick, and Wexford.
In the second half of the twelfth century King Henry II began the English Lordship of Ireland and the challenge of the Anglo-Norman Conquest commenced.
A rebellion that it launched in 1848, however, was easily defeated.
The second half of the nineteenth century saw increased nationalistic demands for self-government and land reform, most notably in the activities of the Home Rule Movement under the leadership of Charles Stewart Parnell.
To keep the Irish subservient and powerless the English enacted a series of brutal penal laws, which succeeded so well that eighteenth century Catholic Ireland was economically and socially wasted.
In 1800, two years after the defeat of the rebellion of Protestant and Catholic United Irishmen led by Wolfe Tone, the Act of Union was passed, combining Great Britain and Ireland into one United Kingdom.
Though home rule was finally passed in 1914, it was deferred because of the onset of World War I.
On Easter Monday in 1916 a small force of Irish nationalists rebelled in Dublin against British rule.