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The first step in the laboratory analysis of phytolith samples is processing, in order to extract the phytoliths from the soil.

Phytoliths may also provide plants with protection.

The silica in phytoliths has a refractive index ranging from 1.41 to 1.47, and a specific gravity from 1.5 to 2.3.

Phytoliths may be colorless, light brown, or opaque; most are transparent.

By an unknown mechanism, which appears to be linked to genetics and metabolism, some of the silica is then laid down in the plant as silicon dioxide.

This biological mechanism does not appear to be limited to specific plant structures, as some plants have been found with silica in their reproductive and sub-surface organs.

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